Christians chose January 6 quite early in their history as a feast day representing Illumination, Manifestation, Declaration according to Matthew , Luke and John .The earliest reference to this date - Epiphany, as a Christian feast, was in A.D. 361,noted as the Christ's "Birthday, His Epiphany" Prior to 1976, Anglican churches also observed an eight-day feast, beginning on January 6.
Today in Eastern Orthodox churches, the emphasis at this feast is on the Jesus Christ as the Messiah and Second Person of the Trinity and baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River by St. John the Baptist Trinity manifested to humanity as God the Father by speaking through the clouds, God the Son - baptized in the river, and God the Holy Spirit in the shape of a dove descending from heaven . Thus this holy day is considered to be a Trinitarian feast.
The Orthodox Christians consider Christ's Baptism to be the first step towards the Crucifixion,
The Eve of the Feast is called Paramony (Greek: παραμονή, Slavonic: navechérie). Paramony is observed as a strict fast day, on which those faithful who are physically able, refrain from food until the first star in the evening, On January 7th they celebrate Christ's birth-Christmas.
customs around the world
In France people share one of two types of king cake. In the northern half of France and Belgium the cake is called a Galette des Rois, and is a round, flat, and golden cake made with flake pastry and often filled with frangipane, fruit, or chocolate. In the south, in Provence, and in the south-west, a crown-shaped cake or brioche filled with fruit is called a Gâteau des Rois. Both types of cake contain a charm, usually a porcelain or plastic figurine, called a fève (bean in French).
The cake is cut by the youngest person at the table to assure that the recipient of the bean is random. The person who gets the piece of cake with the charm becomes "king" or "queen" and wears a paper crown provided with the cake. This person has a choice between offering a beverage to everyone around the table, or volunteering to host the next king cake at their home.
In England, the celebration of the Night before Epiphany, Epiphany Eve, is known as Twelfth Night (The first night of Christmas is December 25–26, and Twelfth Night is January 5–6), The yule log was left burning until this day, and the charcoal left was kept until the next Christmas to kindle next year's yule log, as well as to protect the house from fire and lightning. In the past, Epiphany was also a day for playing jokes, similar to April Fool's Day. A traditional dish for Epiphany was Twelfth Cake, a rich, dense, typically English fruitcake. As in France, whoever found the baked-in bean was king for a day, but unique to English tradition, other items can be included in the cake. Whoever found the clove was the villain, the twig-the fool, and the rag- the tart. Another English Epiphany dessert was the jam tart, made into a six-point star for the occasion to symbolize the Star of Bethlehem, and thus called Epiphany tart. Different coloured jams can be used on the tart for luck, creating a dessert with the appearance of stained glass.
In southern India, Epiphany is called the Three Kings Festival and is celebrated in front of the local church like a fair. Families come together and cook sweet rice porridge called Pongal. This day marks the close of the Advent and Christmas season and people remove the cribs and nativity sets at home.
In the past the "kings" were chosen at this day, only from among high-caste families, but since 1946 the celebration has been open to all. But participation is still expensive as it involves getting a horse, costumes, and providing a buffet to the community afterwards, This is undertaken gladly since having son serve as a king is considered a great honour and a blessing on the family.
The Irish call Epiphany the Feast of the Epiphany or traditionally Little Christmas or "Women's Christmas". On the feast of the Three Kings, women traditionally rest and celebrate for themselves after the cooking and work for the Christmas holidays. They may also receive gifts from children, grandchildren or other family members on this day. Other Epiphany customs, which symbolize the end of the Christmas season, are popular in Ireland, such as the burning the sprigs of Christmas holly in the fireplace which have been used as decorations during the past twelve days.
There are varying stories about Epiphany and Italy. In some parts of Italy on the eve of January 6, fairy visits children to fill their socks with candy and presents if they had been good or a lump of coal or dark candy if they had been bad.
Lebanese Christians who gathered for the mass congratulate each other on that day by saying : "El Deyim Deyim" which translates as "The permanent is permanent". They also mix dough made out of water and flour only and it rises outdoors with no yeast by being blessed Lebanese Christians also pray for their deceased.
Epiphany in the Macedonia is known as Vodici (Водици).On this day the priest throw a wooden cross in water body (river or lake) to symbolize the baptism of Christ. Men jump into the cold water to retrieve the cross and the one that manages is believed to be blessed during the whole year These are very festive gatherings. Special food is jelly form pork and beef meat and bones called "pacha" (пача) or "pivtii" (пивтии), prepared the day before, but served on the day after Epiphany, together with warm local brandy, rakija (ракија). Epiphany is a non-working day for the Orthodox believers in Macedonia.
On January 6, as in much of Europe, a Polish style Three Kings cake is served with a coin or almond baked inside. The one who gets it is king or queen for the day, According to Polish tradition this person will be lucky in the coming year. Recipes vary by region. Some serve a French-type puff pastry cake with almond paste filling, others favor a sponge cake with almond cream filling, or light fruitcake. Epiphany in Poland also signals the beginning of zapusty or carnival time, when Pączki (doughnuts) are served.
In Portugal, Epiphany, January 6, is called Dia dos Reis (Day of the Kings), during which the traditional Bolo Rei (King cake) is baked.
As in other Orthodox heritage countries, water rites also play a special role on this day. In Romanian folk it is believed that if a girl slips on ice - or falls into water- on Epiphany, she will surely marry before the end of year.
Epiphany is a public holiday in Sweden, where it is known as "trettondedag jul" ("Thirteenth Day Yule"), as January 6 is the thirteenth day after Christmas Eve, the main day on which Christmas is celebrated in Sweden. However, the end of the Christmas celebration is on January 13, St. Knut's Day, more commonly known as "Twentieth Day Yule" (or "Twentieth Day Knut").
Epiphany Recipes:(Collected over internet sites and networks, first are Emeril Lagasse's recipes)
2 envelopes active dry yeast
1/2 cup granulated sugar
12 tablespoons (1 1/2 sticks) unsalted butter, melted
1 cup warm milk (about 110?F)
5 large egg yolks, at room temperature
4 1/2 cups bleached all-purpose flour
2 teaspoons salt
1 teaspoon freshly grated nutmeg
1 teaspoon grated lemon zest
1 teaspoon vegetable oil
1 pound cream cheese, at room temperature
4 cups confectionerís sugar
1 plastic king cake baby or a pecan half
5 tablespoons milk, at room temperature
3 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
Purple-, green-, and gold-tinted sugar sprinkles
Combine the yeast and granulated sugar in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a dough hook. Add the melted butter and warm milk. Beat at low speed for 1 minute. With the mixer running, add the egg yolks, then beat for 1 minute at medium-low speed. Add the flour, salt, nutmeg, and lemon zest and beat until everything is incorporated. Increase the speed to high and beat until the dough pulls away from the sides of the bowl, forms a ball, and starts to climb up the dough hook.
Remove the dough from the bowl. Using your hands, form the dough into a smooth ball. Lightly oil a bowl with the vegetable oil. Place the dough in the bowl and turn it to oil all sides. Cover with plastic wrap and set aside in a warm, draft-free place until doubled in size, about 2 hours.
Meanwhile, make the filling. In a large mixing bowl, combine the cream cheese and 1 cup of the confectioner's sugar. Blend by hand or with an electric mixer on low speed. Set aside.
Line a baking sheet with parchment paper.
Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured work surface. Using your fingers, pat it out into a rectangle about 30 inches long and 6 inches wide.
Spread the filling lengthwise over the bottom half of the dough, then flip the top half of the dough over the filling. Seal the edges, pinching the dough together. Shape the dough into a cylinder and place it on the prepared baking sheet seam side down. Shape the dough into a ring and pinch the ends together so there isnít a seam. Insert the king cake baby or pecan half into the ring from the bottom so that it is completely hidden by the dough.
Cover the ring with plastic wrap or a clean kitchen towel and place in a warm, draft-free place. Let the dough rise until doubled in size, about 45 minutes.
Meanwhile, preheat the oven to 350ºF.
Brush the top of the risen cake with 2 tablespoons of the milk. Bake until golden brown, 25 to 30 minutes. Remove from the oven and let cool completely on a wire rack.
Make the icing. Combine the remaining 3 tablespoons milk, the lemon juice, and the remaining 3 cups confectioner's sugar in medium-size mixing bowl. Stir to blend well. With a rubber spatula, spread the icing evenly over the top of the cake. Sprinkle with the sugar crystals, alternating colors around the cake.
The cake is traditionally cut into 2-inch-thick slices with all the guests in attendance
1 package active dry yeast
2 tablespoons warm water, not hotter than 110 degrees F
4 cups all-purpose flour
1 cup whole milk
1/4 cup melted butter
3 large eggs
2 tablespoons sugar
1 1/2 teaspoons salt
1 1/2 teaspoons cinnamon
1 recipe King Cake Icing, as follows
Purple, Green and Gold sanding sugar
2 1/4 cups powdered sugar
1/4 cup whole milk
1/2 teaspoon lemon juice
FOR THE DOUGHNUTS:
Place the yeast and the warm water in the bowl of a standing mixer fitted with the dough hook attachment. Let stand for about 5 minutes or until the yeast begins to bubble. Add the remaining ingredients and mix on low speed for 8 minutes. Scrape the edges of the bowl every few minutes. If you do not have a standing mixer, knead the dough for about 15 minutes.
Remove the dough from the mixer and place in a greased bowl and cover with plastic wrap. Let the dough proof at room temperature for 30 minutes.
Generously flour a cutting board or a flat surface. Roll the dough out until it is 1/2-inch thick. Cut the doughnuts using a 3-inch round cookie cutter. Cut out the center with a round 1/2-inch cutter. Transfer the doughnuts to a greased baking sheet and cover with plastic wrap. Let the doughnuts proof at room temperature for another 30 minutes.
Preheat a fryer to 325°F and fry the doughnuts in batches until golden brown on each side, about 5 minutes total. Transfer the doughnuts to a paper towel lined baking sheet or a rack positioned over a baking sheet and let cool for 3 minutes.
Working one at a time, dip one side of a warm doughnut in the King Cake Icing and then sprinkle as desired with purple, green, and gold sugar. Repeat with the remaining donuts.
FOR THE ICING:
King's Cake 2Emeril Lagasse recipe
1 pound white bread, such as Pullman loaf or French, cut into 1-inch cubes
8 large eggs
¾ cup granulated sugar
2 teaspoons vanilla extract
½ teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon cinnamon
5 cups plus ¼ cup whole milk
4 tablespoons melted unsalted butter
2 ¼ cups Confectioners’ sugar
1 tablespoon lemon juice
Purple, green and gold sanding sugar, for decorating
Blackberry Compote, for serving, optional
Lemon Goat Cheese Ice Cream, for serving, optional, or storebought vanilla ice cream
FOR THE BLACKBERRY COMPOTE
3 pints blackberries
½ cup sugar
1 tablespoon cornstarch
½ lemon, juiced and zested
½ vanilla bean, halved lengthwise
FOR THE LEMON GOAT CHEESE ICE CREAM
3 cups whole milk
1 1/3 cups sugar
Finely grated zest of 1 lemon
7 large egg yolks
1 pound soft, mild goat cheese, crumbled at room temperature
TO MAKE THE KING CAKE:
Place the bread in a large mixing bowl.
In a separate mixing bowl, combine the eggs, sugar, vanilla, cinnamon and salt and whisk until thickened and smooth. Whisk in 5 cups of the milk, then pour the egg mixture over the bread cubes and allow to sit for about 15 minutes.
Preheat the oven to 350°F.
Brush a 9- by 13-inch baking dish with some of the melted butter, coating well on all sides, then gently stir the remaining melted butter into the bread mixture. Spoon the bread mixture into the buttered pan and transfer to the oven. Bake until the center of the bread pudding is set and the top is golden brown, 55 to 60 minutes. Remove from the oven and set aside to cool for 15 minutes.
While the bread pudding is cooling, combine the confectioners’ sugar, remaining 1/4 cup milk and the lemon juice in a small bowl and stir until smooth. After the pudding has cooled for 15 minutes, pour the sugar glaze evenly over the top, then decorate with the colored sanding sugar as desired.
TO MAKE THE BLACKBERRY COMPOTE:
In a large saucepan combine two pints of the blackberries and the remaining ingredients. Bring to a simmer over medium heat and continue to cook, stirring frequently, until the berries have released their juices and the mixture has thickened. Remove from the heat and stir in the remaining blackberries. Set aside to cool.
TO MAKE THE LEMON GOAT CHEESE ICE CREAM:
Prepare an ice bath in a large bowl and place another slightly smaller heatproof bowl on top.
Combine the milk, sugar and lemon zest in a large saucepan and bring just to a boil.
In a heatproof mixing bowl, whisk the egg yolks until smooth, then whisk in some of the hot milk mixture, little by little, to temper the yolks. Whisk the yolk-milk mixture into the hot milk remaining in the saucepan and continue to cook, stirring constantly, until the mixture thickens enough to coat the back of a spoon. Remove from the heat immediately and strain through a fine mesh sieve into the bowl set over the ice bath. Whisk in the goat cheese until smooth, then allow to cool to room temperature. Chill the mixture thoroughly, then process in an ice cream maker according to manufacturer’s directions.
Galette de rois
When working with puff pastry, it’s important to keep it well-chilled and work quickly when rolling as it tends to get stubborn as it warms up. Keep the second piece in the refrigerator until after you’ve rolled out the first. After rolling, brush off any excess flour. And make sure to seal the edges really well to avoid the filling leaking out.
Frozen puff pastry can often be found in the freezer section of well-stocked supermarkets. Avoid brand that list fats other than butter in the ingredients for best results. If you don’t want to use alcohol, simply omit it or use a few drops of orange flower water in its place.
- 1 cup (100g) almond flour
- 1/2 cup (100g) sugar
- pinch salt
- zest of 1/2 orange (unsprayed)
- 3 1/2 ounces (100g) unsalted butter, cubed, at room temperature
- 2 large eggs, at room temperature
- 2 teaspoon rum
- 1/8 teaspoon almond extract
1 pound (450g) puff pastry, divided in two pieces, chilled
a whole almond or piece of candied fruit to be the fève
a whole almond or piece of candied fruit to be the fève
1 egg yolk
1 teaspoon milk
1 egg yolk
1 teaspoon milk
1. To make the almond filling, in a medium bowl, or in the bowl of a stand mixer, combine the almond flour, sugar, salt, and orange zest. Mash in the butter until it’s completely incorporated. Stir in the eggs one at a time, along with the rum and almond extract. (The mixture may not look completely smooth, which is normal.) Cover and chill.
2. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper. On lightly floured surface, roll one piece of puff pastry into a circle about 9 1/2-inches (23cm) round. Using a pot lid, plate, or bottom of springform pan as a template, trim the dough into neat circle. Place the dough on the baking sheet.
3. Cover it with a sheet of parchment paper or plastic film, then roll the other piece of dough into a circle, trim it, and lay it on top. Chill the dough for thirty minutes.
4. Remove the dough and almond filling from the refrigerator. Slide the second circle of dough and parchment or plastic from pan so that there is only one circle of dough on the parchment lined baking sheet. Spread the almond filling over the center of the dough, leaving a 1-inch (3cm) exposed border. Place an almond or piece of candied fruit to act as the fève (prize) somewhere in the almond filling, if you wish.
5. Brush water generously around the exposed perimeter of the dough then place the other circle of dough on top of the galette and press down to seal the edges very well. (At this point, you may wish to chill the galette since it’ll be a bit easier to finish and decorate, although it’s not necessary. It can be refrigerated overnight at this point, if you wish.)
6. To bake the galette, preheat the oven to 375ºF (180ºC.) Flute the sides of the dough (as shown in the photo) and use a paring knife to create a design on top. Stir together the egg yolk with the milk and brush it evenly over the top – avoid getting the glaze on the sides, which will inhibit the pastry from rising at the edges. Use a paring knife to poke 5 holes in the top, to allow steam escape while baking.
7. Bake for 30 minutes, or until the galette is browned on top and up the sides. (During baking, if the galette puffs up too dramatically in the oven, you may want to poke it once or twice again with a paring knife to release the steam.) Remove from the oven and slide the galette off the baking sheet and onto a cooling rack. The galette will deflate as it cools, which is normal. Serve warm or at room temperature.
English Twelfth night cake